(Jwplayer)

May 23, 2017

A New Priesthood Warrants A New Law

Who is the liar? It is whoever denies that Jesus is the Christ. Such a person is the antichrist--denying the Father and the Son. 1 John 2:22

Hebrews 7:11-28

Jesus Compared to Melchizedek

11 Now if perfection had been attainable through the Levitical priesthood (for under it the people received the law), what further need would there have been for another priest to arise after the order of Melchizedek, rather than one named after the order of Aaron? 12 For when there is a change in the priesthood, there is necessarily a change in the law as well. 13 For the one of whom these things are spoken belonged to another tribe, from which no one has ever served at the altar. 14 For it is evident that our Lord was descended from Judah, and in connection with that tribe Moses said nothing about priests.
15 This becomes even more evident when another priest arises in the likeness of Melchizedek, 16 who has become a priest, not on the basis of a legal requirement concerning bodily descent, but by the power of an indestructible life.17 For it is witnessed of him,
“You are a priest forever,
    after the order of Melchizedek.”
18 For on the one hand, a former commandment is set aside because of its weakness and uselessness 19 (for the law made nothing perfect); but on the other hand, a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to God.
20 And it was not without an oath. For those who formerly became priests were made such without an oath, 21 but this one was made a priest with an oath by the one who said to him:
“The Lord has sworn
    and will not change his mind,
‘You are a priest forever.’”
22 This makes Jesus the guarantor of a better covenant.
23 The former priests were many in number, because they were prevented by death from continuing in office, 24 but he holds his priesthood permanently, because he continues forever.25 Consequently, he is able to save to the uttermost[a] those who draw near to God through him, since he always lives to make intercession for them.
26 For it was indeed fitting that we should have such a high priest, holy, innocent, unstained, separated from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. 27 He has no need, like those high priests, to offer sacrifices daily, first for his own sins and then for those of the people, since he did this once for all when he offered up himself.28 For the law appoints men in their weakness as high priests, but the word of the oath, which came later than the law, appoints a Son who has been made perfect forever.

Footnotes:

  1. Hebrews 7:25 That is, completely; or at all times



Verses 7:11-28: In this section the argument is extended a step further. Since the Melchizedekan priesthood is superior to the Levitical priesthood (verses 1-10), Christ’s priesthood is also superior to the Levitical priesthood, since Christ’s priesthood is Melchizedekan rather that Levitical.
Hebrews 7:11 "If therefore perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people received the law,) what further need [was there] that another priest should rise after the order of Melchizedek, and not be called after the order of Aaron?"
“Perfection”: Throughout Hebrews, the term refers to complete reconciliation with God and unhindered access to God, Salvation. The Levitical system and its priesthood could not save anyone from their sins.
Galatians 3:11 "But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, [it is] evident: for, The just shall live by faith."
The law did not save, it just showed us how badly we needed a Savior. The law, then and now, shows that no man can live up to the law and all have sinned and come short of the glory of God.
Galatians 3:24 "Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster [to bring us] unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith."
I want to break from the detailed explanation for a moment here and say; The Tabernacle in the wilderness was patterned after the real Tabernacle in heaven. The holy place and the most holy place that Moses had built in the wilderness was just a model of the real Holy of Holies in heaven. Moses was warned to make it in detail as the one in heaven.
The Tabernacle in the wilderness had a high priest. This leaves no doubt, that the Holy place in Heaven has a great High Priest also. We are told over and over that The High Priest forever is the One we call Jesus Christ.
Verses 12-14: Since Christ is the Christian’s High-Priest and He was of the tribe of Judah, not Levi (Matt. 2:1, 6; Rev. 5:5), His priesthood is clearly beyond the law which was the authority for the Levitical priesthood (verse 11). This is proof that the Mosaic Law had been abrogated.
The Levitical system was replaced by a new Priest, offering a new sacrifice, under a New Covenant. He abrogated the law by fulfilling it (Matt. 5:17), and providing the perfection which the law could never accomplish (Matt. 5:20).
Hebrews 7:12 "For the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law."
Romans 8:3 "For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:"
Romans 5:20 "Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound:"
Abraham was saved by grace through faith just as we Christians are.
I will end this lesson on this note. God knew that man could not live up to the law, so He gave us a way of escape. That Way is Jesus Christ, our Lord.
Verses 13, 15 “Another”: In both cases, the term is “another of a different kind” (heteros), emphasizing the contrast with the Levitical priesthood.
Hebrews 7:13 "For he of whom these things are spoken pertaineth to another tribe, of which no man gave attendance at the altar."
In the previous lesson, we were studying about Melchizedek who was High Priest forever. We were discussing the similarities between Him and Jesus Christ. This Scripture above explains, again, that this Melchizedek is not of the Levitical tribe.
Hebrews 7:14 "For [it is] evident that our Lord sprang out of Judah; of which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priesthood."
Neither Jesus nor Melchizedek sprang from the Levitical tribe. The only way Jesus sprang from the tribe of Judah was in the flesh. His Spirit which is eternal sprang from no one. The priesthood of Jesus and Melchizedek was of God.

Verses 15-28: Though the author has repeatedly mentioned the unending nature of the Melchizedekian priesthood, this now becomes the central point. Because of its unending nature, it provides a “better hope” and an “unchangeable priesthood”, resulting in an unending salvation and intercession through a perfect, one-time sacrifice.
Hebrews 7:15 "And it is yet far more evident: for that after the similitude of Melchizedek there ariseth another priest," "Who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life."
“Law of a carnal commandment”: The law dealt only with the temporal existence of Israel. The forgiveness which could be obtained even on the Day of Atonement was temporary. Those who ministered as priests under the law were mortals receiving their office by heredity. The Levitical system was dominated by matters of physical existence and transitory ceremonialism.
“Power of an endless life”: Because He is the eternal Second Person of the God-head, Christ’s priesthood cannot end. He obtained His priesthood, not by virtue of the law, but by virtue of His deity.
Revelation 1:18 "I [am] he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death."
Hebrews 7:17 "For he testifieth, Thou [art] a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek."
Quoted from (Psalm 110:4).
Hebrews 7:18 "For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof."
“Disannulling”: The law was weak in that it could not save or bring about inward change in a person (Rom. 8:3; Gal. 4:9).
We see in this, that the law came first. When the weakness of man to keep the law was evident, God sent another plan to save mankind.
Hebrews 7:19 "For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope [did]; by the which we draw nigh unto God."
“The law made nothing perfect”: The law saved no one (Rom. 3:19-20); rather it cursed everyone (Gal. 3:10-13).
“Draw nigh unto God: This is the key phrase in this passage. Drawing near to God is the essence of Christianity as compared with the Levitical system, which kept people outside His presence. As believer priests, we are all to draw near to God, that is a characteristic of priesthood (Exodus 19:22; Matt. 27:51).
Galatians 2:16 "Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified."
This Scripture in Galatians explains that with faith in Jesus Christ plus nothing, we are saved. The law condemned man and the grace of Jesus Christ brought hope to all who will believe.
Hebrews 7:20-21 "And inasmuch as not without an oath [he was made priest]:" "(For those priests were made without an oath; but this with an oath by him that said unto him, The Lord sware and will not repent, Thou [art] a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek:)"
“Oath”: God’s promises are unchangeable, sealed with an oath (6:17). The Melchizedekan priesthood of Christ is confirmed with God’s oath (in Psalm 110:4). God’s mind on this matter will not change (verse 21).
This oath, that Jesus was a High Priest after the order of Melchizedek, was an oath that God took on Himself. This leaves no room for dispute.
Hebrews 7:22 "By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament."
“Surety”: This is the only use of the Greek term in the New Testament could also be translated “guarantee”. Jesus Himself guarantees the success of His New Covenant of salvation.
Testament means a contract or a covenant. Surety means pledge. We see then from this that the new contract between God and man is much better than the law.
Hebrews 7:23 "And they truly were many priests, because they were not suffered to continue by reason of death:"
“Many priests”: It is claimed that there were 84 High-Priests who served from Aaron until the destruction of the temple by the Romans (in A.D. 70). The lesser priests’ numbers were much larger.
Hebrews 7:24 "But this [man], because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood."
If we were to look in the book of Chronicles in the Old Testament, we would find many, many names of priests and high priest beginning with Aaron. Some of these were sincere ministers of the temple, but some of them were bad. Two of Aaron's sons brought strange fire into the temple and God killed them.
God spoke to the people through the high priest. The high priest also represented the people before God. The only Eternal High Priest was Jesus Christ.
Hebrews 7:25 "Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them."
“Uttermost”: Virtually the same concept as was expressed in “perfection” (verse 11), and “make perfect” (verse 19). The Greek term is used only here and (in Luke 13:11) “the woman’s body could not be straightened completely”.
“Intercession”: The word means “to intercede on behalf of another.” It was used to refer to bringing a petition to a king on behalf of someone. Since rabbis assigned intercessory powers to angels, perhaps the people were treating angels as intercessors. The writer makes it clear that only Christ is the intercessor (1 Tim. 2:5).
The intercessory work of Christ for the Christian is similar to preventive medicine. In one sense, intercession identifies Christ’s present work of mediation in heaven. The biblical use of the term more specifically describes Christ’s intervention on behalf of believers’ weaknesses and temptations.
Christ is continually and actively interceding on our behalf. The assurance of the believer should rest in part on this present ministry of Christ’s intercession.
There is a beautiful prayer of Jesus to the Father and in it, it tells so much about how He intercedes on our behalf. It begins (in John 17:9-26). I quote:
John 17:9-11 "I pray for them: I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me; for they are thine.” “And all mine are thine, and thine are mine; and I am glorified in them.” “And now I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me, that they may be one, as we [are].”
John 17:12-15 “While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou gavest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled.” “And now come I to thee; and these things I speak in the world, that they might have my joy fulfilled in themselves.” “I have given them thy word; and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.” “I pray not that thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that thou shouldest keep them from the evil.”
John 17:16-19 “They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.” “Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth.” “As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world.” “And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified through the truth.”
John 17:20-21 “Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word;” “That they all may be one; as thou, Father, [art] in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me.”
John 17:22-23 “And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one:” “I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me.
John 17:24 “Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world.
John 17:25-26 “O righteous Father, the world hath not known thee: but I have known thee, and these have known that thou hast sent me.” “And I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare [it]: that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them."

Verses 26-28: Christ’s divine and holy character is yet another proof of the superiority of His priesthood.
Hebrews 7:26 "For such a high priest became us, [who is] holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens;"
In His relationship to God, Christ is “holy” (piety without any pollution; Matt. 3:17; 17:5; Mark 1:24; Luke 4:24; Acts 2:27; 13:35).
In His relationship to man, He is “innocent” (without evil or malice; John 8:46).
In relationship to Himself, He is “undefiled” (free from contamination; 1 Peter 1:19), and “separated from sinners” (He had no sin nature which would be the source of any act of sin; “without sin” in 4:15).
2 Corinthians 5:21 "For he hath made him [to be] sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him."
We have no righteousness of our own. We are made righteous when we accept Jesus as our Savior and are washed in His blood and made righteous in Him.
Hebrews 7:27 "Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's: for this he did once, when he offered up himself."
“Daily”: Whenever the Levitical High-Priest sinned, he was required to offer sacrifices for himself (Lev. 4:3). Whenever the people sinned, he also had to offer a sacrifice for them (Lev. 4:13). These occasions could be daily.
Then annually, on the Day of Atonement, he had to again offer sacrifices for himself and for the people (Lev. 16:6, 11, 15). Christ had no sin and needed no sacrifice for Himself. And only one sacrifice (by Him), was needed, one time only, for all men, for all time.
“He did once”: A key emphasis in Hebrews. The sacrificial work of Christ never needed to be repeated, unlike the Old Testament priestly sacrifices. (9:12, 26, 28; 10:2, 10; 1 Peter 3:18).
The blood of an animal could not do away with sin, it just covered it up. There is absolutely no way that anyone could even remember all the ordinances of the law, much less keep them. The blood of animals did not clear a person's conscience of sin.
Hebrews 9:12-14 "Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption [for us]." "For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh:" "How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?"
Hebrews 7:28 "For the law maketh men high priests which have infirmity; but the word of the oath, which was since the law, [maketh] the Son, who is consecrated for evermore."
“Word of the oath”: God confirmed Christ as High-Priest (verses 20-21; 6:16-18).
We see from this that imperfect men were the high priest of the people while the law was in effect. Our Eternal High Priest (Jesus Christ), is the perfect one. His dedication and love for His followers is everlasting.
Romans 8:34 "Who [is] he that condemneth? [It is] Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us."
He sits at the right hand of the Father and pleads our case before Him.
1 John 2:1 "My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous:"
Hebrews Chapter 8
Verses 8:1 – 1:18 This entire section is an exposition of the New Covenant promised (in Jer. 31:31-34), and its contrast to the Old Covenant of Law.


  • Hebrews 7:11–12. The Levitical Priesthood Was Temporary
  • Hebrews 7:13–28. Christ’s Priesthood is Eternal

King James Study Bible Notes: 
Hebrews 7:11-28
  • Gen. 14:17–24  Melchizedek king of Salem probably was not a theophany, but an actual king of Jerusalem or Salem (cf. Ps. 76:2). He typifies Christ and His priesthood according to Psalm 110:4 and ...  


  • Num. 20:23–29  The death of Aaron, the high priest, stands in sharp contrast to the eternal priesthood of Christ (cf. Heb. 7:2324). Gathered unto his people is the usual phrase to describe the death...  

  • Num. 35:9–34  Avenger: When a man was killed, it was the duty of his nearest male relative, “the avenger of blood” (vv. 121921242527), to kill the man responsible. The Hebrew word is gō’ēl...  



  • Deut. 18:15–19  By contrast, Yahweh would raise up a line of prophets. The will of God was to be discovered through a prophet and not through a diviner, a magic worker, or a spiritist. He was to be from...   


  • Psalm 110  This royal psalm is also messianic. It is the only messianic psalm with no contemporary reference to David or another. Though assailed by critics, its Davidic authorship, divine...  


  • Jer. 30:21, 22  The coming governor . . . from the midst of the restored people of Israel shall be, as the Jewish Targum suggests, the Messiah Himself. This verse makes clear that He will combine in...  


  • Humanity of Christ: Luke 2:52:  Jesus was not only God; He was also fully Man. As such He was subject to the same kind of limitations that all human beings experience. Like any other child, He inherited...  


  • Introduction to the Epistle to the Hebrews
  • Heb. 1:3  Christ’s person, power, and position are all expressed in this verse. He is described as being the brightness of God’s glory. The word being, whose force is “eternally being,” guards against...  



  • Heb. 5:11–14  The third warning passage of Hebrews, 5:11—6:20 (see the note on ), does not involve insecurity of salvation as many suppose, but immaturity (see 6:4–6). The author wishes to continue...  

  • Heb. 6:4–6  This passage does not teach that one can lose his salvation through disbelief or apostasy. These verses refer to a hypothetical situation whereby the author stresses what would happen to a...  


  • Heb. 7:1–3  Melchisedec (Melchizedek) appears only briefly in the Old Testament, yet our author minutely scrutinizes him. (See Gen. 14:18–20Ps. 110:4.) Being by interpretation: The writer sees in...  


  • Heb. 7:11, 12  The author raises the question as to why the Old Testament should make reference to another priesthood. If the Levitical priesthood were producing perfection, meaning completion or...   


  • Heb. 7:15–28  Though the author has repeatedly mentioned the unending nature of the Melchizedekian priesthood, this now becomes the central point. Because of its unending nature it provides a better...  
  • Intercession of Christ: Hebrews 7: 25:  The intercessory work of Christ for the Christian is similar to preventive medicine. In one sense, intercession identifies Christ’s present work of mediation in heaven....  
            



     
  • Heb. 10:1–18:  The feature of the new covenant emphasized here is Christ’s once-for-all sacrifice. The author has frequently stated this point in the preceding chapters (cf. 7:279:122628), but...  

  • Heb. 10:20:  Jesus Christ is the new and living way by which believers have direct access into the very Holy Place of God (cf. 4:146:207:25John 14:6).  

  • Advocacy of Christ: 1 John 2:1:  The term advocate denotes a lawyer who represents his client before a court of law. When applied to the present ministry of Christ, it speaks of His work for sinning...  




Hebrews 7

V 1–10: PICTURED PRIEST: Melchizedek is a type of Christ. Many believe that he was an Old Testament appearance of the Lord Jesus Christ (known as a theophany). He was the king of righteousness and peace without having any human father or mother. He had no antecedents, nor end of life. He was made ‘like the Son of God’ and ‘remains a priest continually’. Abraham, the father of those saved through faith, gave him tithes before the priesthood was instituted, indicating the greatness of Melchizedek. Jesus is pictured in all this typology, even if Melchizedek is not a theophany. V 11–19: PERFECTED PRIEST: The Levitical system could not produce a perfect priest. Jesus is a better priest than Aaron. His power comes not from the line of descent, but from the ‘power of an endless life’ as he rose again from the dead and ascended into heaven. Because He is perfect, He enables us to ‘draw near to God’. V 20–25: PERMANENT PRIEST: God has sworn an oath to confirm the priesthood of Jesus Christ who has become the surety of a better covenant. He lives for ever and is unchangeable. He always intercedes for us. He is our permanent Priest. V 26–28: PRE-EMINENT PRIEST: Unlike all the other priests, Jesus is sinlessly perfect and higher than the heavens. With no sins of His own to necessitate a sacrifice, He could offer Himself as a spotless sacrifice for all sinners who would come to Him.

Encyclopedia of The Bible:


Dictionary of Bible Themes:
  • 1065 God, holiness of:  The moral excellence of God that unifies his attributes and is expressed through his actions, setting him apart from all others. Believers are called to be holy as God is holy.
  • 1080 God, living and self-sustaining:  God is alive and active. In contrast to idols, he is uncreated and the source of all continuing life.
  • 1100 God, perfection of:  God is complete, faultless and totally sufficient in every aspect of his being and ways. That perfection is made known in Jesus Christ, and is the ultimate goal of the Christian life.
  • 1105 God, power of:  God is all-powerful (that is omnipotent), and is able to do whatever he wills. His power is limited only by his character.
  • 1145 God, transcendence of:  God is far above, beyond and outside the created order.
  • 1150 God, truth of:  God’s unique integrity is displayed in his perfection of character and attributes. It is further emphasised by the consistent truth of his words and works, supremely shown in Jesus Christ.
  • 1160 God, unchangeableness of:  God’s nature, plans and actions do not change even though he is active and his relationships do not remain static. His moral consistency guarantees his commitment to unchanging principles.
  • 1210 God, human descriptions of:  Figures of speech which describe God in human terms, sometimes referred to as anthropomorphisms. Since God is Spirit, these expressions help the human mind to understand God, and enable God to reveal himself to human beings.
  • 1340 consistency:  God’s nature, plans and purpose do not change. The same consistent plan of salvation can be seen throughout the OT and NT, culminating in Jesus Christ who is “the same yesterday and today and for ever”. Believers are also called to show the same consistency in their faith and witness.
  • 1352 covenant, the new:   The fulfilment of God’s purposes of salvation expressed in the covenants of the OT, mediated by Jesus Christ and sealed in his blood. It is a covenant of grace, the benefits of which include forgiveness, a renewed relationship with God and, through the Holy Spirit, an inward transformation that enables obedience to its demands and so ensures that it will not again be broken. Jer 31:31 The “new” covenant is contrasted with the covenant made at Sinai which is sometimes referred to as the “old” or “first” covenant. See also Heb 8:8

    The new covenant fulfils the OT covenants

    God’s covenant with Noah Isa 54:9-10Hos 2:18
    God’s covenant with Abraham Lk 1:72-73Ac 3:25-26Gal 3:14-16
    God’s covenant at Sinai Eze 16:60,62Eze 20:37
    God’s covenant with David Isa 55:3Eze 34:24-26Eze 37:25-26Lk 1:69

    Jesus Christ, the mediator of the new covenant

    The new covenant fulfilled in the MessiahMal 3:1 See also Isa 42:6Isa 49:8
    The new covenant effected through Jesus Christ’s death Heb 9:15 See also Heb 9:16-17
    The new covenant sealed in Jesus Christ’s blood Lk 22:20 pp Mt 26:28 pp Mk 14:24See also Ex 24:8 Blood was an important element in sealing the Sinaitic covenant; Jn 6:541Co 10:161Co 11:25Heb 10:29

    The ministry of the Holy Spirit

    The superior blessings of the new covenant

    God’s grace and mercy Heb 12:24 The blood of Abel cried out to God for justice and retribution; the blood of Jesus Christ, shed to seal the new covenant, cries out for mercy and forgiveness.
    A complete forgiveness Heb 8:12 See alsoJer 31:34Ro 11:27Heb 10:17
    Release from the law’s condemnation 2Co 3:9Gal 3:13-14
    An inward enabling to obey God’s laws Jer 31:32-33 The old covenant was broken because its demands were not met. Under the new covenant the requirements of obedience are not abolished, but in writing his laws on human hearts, God gives the ability to meet the covenant demands. See also Jer 32:38-40Eze 11:19-202Co 3:3Heb 8:9-10Heb 9:14Heb 10:16
    A new knowledge of God Heb 8:11 See alsoJer 31:342Co 3:15-16
    A renewed relationship with God Eze 37:26-27 “peace” refers to spiritual and material well-being; real peace is possible only for those in a right relationship with God. The formula “I will be their God, and they will be my people” is associated also with the Abrahamic and especially the Sinaitic covenants. See also Jer 24:7Jer 31:1Eze 34:30-31Hos 2:19-23
    A superior priesthood Heb 8:6 See alsoHeb 7:22Heb 9:24-25
    A superior sacrifice Heb 9:14 See also Heb 9:20-23,26-28Heb 10:4,8-14
    A lasting covenant Isa 61:82Co 3:11 See also Jer 50:5Heb 8:7,13Heb 13:20
  • 1651 numbers, 1-2:  The number one is often associated with the uniqueness of God and also with the unity between God and his people. The number two is used in a variety of contexts.
  • 1680 types:  An OT institution, person, place or event regarded as anticipating the person of Jesus Christ or some aspect of the Christian faith or life.
  • 2012 Jesus Christ, authority of:  The right of Jesus Christ to speak and act on his Father’s behalf in forgiving sin, pronouncing judgment and promising eternal life to those who believe in him.
  • 2018 Jesus Christ, divinity of:  The equality and identity of Jesus Christ as God is clearly stated in the NT, and is also implied by the words and deeds of Jesus Christ. The OT prophecies also point to the divinity of the coming Messiah.
  • 2030 Jesus Christ, holiness of:  The holiness of Jesus Christ is seen in his divine nature and work, as he stands apart from and above the created world with divine power, authority and purity. Recognition of the holiness of Jesus Christ leads both to a realisation of sin and unworthiness and to worship and adoration.
  • 2033 Jesus Christ, humanity of:  Scripture stresses the total humanity of Jesus Christ. Although sinless, Christ shared in the general condition of humanity, including suffering and death.
  • 2054 Jesus Christ, mind of:  The centre of Jesus Christ’s thought, understanding and motivation, characterised by a total dedication to God. Christians are called upon to have the same mind as Christ.
  • 2063 Jesus Christ, perfection of:  Jesus Christ perfectly radiates the glory of God, exactly representing his Father’s likeness. Christ’s work is complete and he is free from all impurity.
  • 2066 Jesus Christ, power of:  The historical and ongoing effective authority of Jesus Christ over natural elements, over human life and ultimately over sin, forces of evil, Satan and death.
  • 2069 Jesus Christ, pre-eminence of:  Jesus Christ excels over all of creation and reigns supreme over everthing in the created order.
  • 2075 Jesus Christ, sinlessness of:  The complete absence of sin, only in Jesus Christ. Christ demonstrated complete obedience to God in spite of his human frailty, enabling him to be a perfect atoning sacrifice and to give his righteousness to sinners.
  • 2206 Jesus, the Christ:  “Christ” means “Messiah” or “anointed one”. As the Christ, Jesus is the one who fulfils all OT expectations. Paul’s phrase “in Christ” indicates the intimate relationship between Jesus Christ and his people.
  • 2212 Jesus Christ, head of the church:  Jesus Christ rules and governs his people and directs them towards the fulfilment of God’s purposes. All power and authority within the church derive from Jesus Christ as the head.
  • 2306 Jesus Christ, as high priest:  Jesus Christ, being a truly human high priest, perfectly represents humanity before God. He made atonement for sins by his own sacrificial death. Being a truly divine high priest, this act of Christ’s was perfect, once for all and of eternal value.
  • 2315 Jesus Christ, as Lamb:  Jesus Christ is referred to as the “Lamb of God”. This symbol points to Christ being a perfect sacrifice for sin. It also conveys his meekness and his willingness to submit to suffering and death.
  • 2324 Jesus Christ, as SaviourGod’s work of salvation is accomplished supremely through the cross and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Through faith, the believer is able to share in all the saving benefits won by Jesus Christ through his obedience to God.
  • 2336 Jesus Christ, exaltation of:  Having completed his work on earth, Jesus Christ is raised to God’s right hand where he receives honour, power and glory.
  • 2354 Jesus Christ, mission of:  The work that Jesus Christ was sent to do, including both his healing and preaching ministry, but particularly his work of salvation. Jesus Christ sends Christians to continue his work by proclaiming his message of salvation.
  • 2360 Jesus Christ, prayers of:  Prayer was the essence of Jesus Christ’s relationship with the Father. He prayed for himself and his mission, and he continues to pray for all believers.
  • 2366 Jesus Christ, prophecies concerning:  The OT points ahead to the person and ministry of Jesus Christ. Christ’s fulfilment of OT prophecy is often noted by NT writers as a demonstration of God’s faithfulness to his promises of salvation and as confirmation of the divine authority of Jesus Christ.
  • 2421 gospel, historical foundation of:  The gospel rests upon the history of Jesus Christ: his birth, obedient life, atoning death, physical resurrection from the dead and his ascension into heaven.
  • 2505 Jesus Christ, ascension of:  The return of Jesus Christ to his Father in order to establish his kingdom, having completed his work on earth.
  • 2530 Jesus Christ, death of:  The death of Jesus Christ by crucifixion is of central importance to the NT. Through the faithful, obedient death of Christ, God grants sinners forgiveness and eternal life. The Christian sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s Supper focus upon the death of Christ.
  • 2540 Jesus Christ, genealogy of:  Jesus Christ’s human ancestry is traced back in two separate lines to David and thence back to Adam. Jesus’descent from David is of importance for his Messianic claims.
  • 2560 Jesus Christ, resurrection of:  True Christian preaching is centred on the fact that God raised Jesus Christ from the dead so that believers may have victory over sin and death and receive the blessings of eternal life.
  • 2570 Jesus Christ, suffering of:  Jesus Christ’s life was characterised by suffering, though the worst experiences were reserved for his final days. His sufferings are both redemptive and an example to believers.
  • 4963 past, the:  Jesus Christ transforms the past and sets people free to live in a new way. God’s people should remember former blessings but not return to former sins.
  • 5073 Aaron, as model priest:  Aaron was made high priest and charged with the responsibility of making offerings for the sins of the people and ensuring that the Lord was worshipped in the proper manner. His priesthood was to pass to his descendants, thus ensuring its continuity.
  • 5100 Melchizedek:  “King of Righteousness”: king and priest of Salem, who blessed Abraham. David assumed Melchizedek’s role as king and priest of Jersualem for himself and his descendants. Jesus Christ succeeded to this role and became a high priest in the order of Melchizedek.
  • 5103 Moses, significance of:  Moses performed a number of major roles in the history of Israel. Many of these roles later found their perfection in Jesus Christ.
  • 5329 guarantee:  A pledge given that a promise will be fulfilled; a deposit or down payment making fulfilment obligatory. All God’s promises are guaranteed in and through Jesus Christ.
  • 5366 king:  The ruler or monarch of a country or realm. God is king of all the earth and human kings are called to rule in accordance with his will. The failure of kings in Israel and Judah after David led to the expectation of a coming king like David. This was fulfilled in Jesus Christ: the true King of Israel and all the world.
  • 5381 law, letter and spirit of:  A rigid adherence to the letter of the law often masks hypocrisy and neglect of its spirit, namely having God at the centre of one’s life and putting others before oneself, or recognising that the law points to Jesus Christ.
  • 5431 oaths, divine:  Solemn promises made by God to individuals and their offspring. He swears by himself because there is nothing greater to swear by.
  • 5467 promises, divine:  The promises of God reveal his particular and eternal purposes to which he is unchangeably committed and upon which believers can totally depend. These promises are, however, conditional upon obedience on the part of believers.
  • 5566 suffering, encouragements in:  Believers are encouraged by the loving care and faithful promises of God and by the example, support and prayers of fellow believers. The prospect of heaven helps them to endure.
  • 5776 achievement:  Human beings can achieve many things, though any achievement which disregards God is futile. God always achieves what he intends. Anything of eternal value needs God-given resources.
  • 5849 exaltation:  The lifting up or raising on high of a person, in words or actions. The exaltation of Jesus Christ, first on the cross and then in his resurrection, provides a model of how God exalts the humble and obedient. God also humbles those who exalt themselves. Believers are called upon to exalt God in their praise of him.
  • 5939 satisfaction:  A state of contentment or fulfilment. Only God brings true satisfaction and Scripture advocates that believers should cultivate satisfaction in every situation. Jesus Christ’s atoning death was the unique means of satisfying the demands of the law.
  • 5942 security:  Guaranteed safety, whether natural or spiritual, from danger or loss. Scripture stresses that ultimate security is to be found only in God himself.
  • 5971 uniqueness:  The quality of being without an equal. Scripture stresses the uniqueness of God and of the salvation that is available only from him. Jesus Christ is the unique mediator between God and humanity.
  • 6023 sin, universality of:  All human beings sin and are guilty in the sight of God on account of an inherently sinful disposition, which can be traced back to Adam. Acts of sin thus arise from a sinful human heart. The basis of cleansing and cancellation of “original sin” is the atoning death of Jesus Christ.
  • 6025 sin, and God’s character:  In his righteousness and holiness, God detests sin and its effects upon humanity. In his mercy and grace, he makes available a means of atonement, by the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
  • 6027 sin, God’s remedy for:  Under the old covenant, sin was forgiven through sacrifice, prefiguring the atoning death of Jesus Christ, which brings forgiveness of sins under the new covenant.
  • 6028 sin, God’s deliverance from:  The gospel reveals the purpose and power of God to deal with sin and all of its effects. Scripture uses a range of images to express the comprehensiveness of salvation.
  • 6040 sinners:  All who have sinned. The term tends to be used in particular of those regarded as outside God’s covenant of grace, whose sins are therefore not forgiven.
  • 6142 decay:  As a consequence of the fall, all created things have a tendency to waste away and spoil. Jesus Christ brings deliverance from this.
  • 6512 salvation, necessity and basis of:  Scripture stresses that fallen human beings are cut off from God on account of their sin. All need to be saved, if they are to enter into a new relationship with God as their Creator and Redeemer. Salvation is not the result of human achievement, privilege or wisdom, but depends totally upon the graciousness of a loving God, supremely expressed in the cross of Jesus Christ. People must respond in repentance and faith if they are to benefit from God’s offer of salvation in Christ.
  • 6606 access to God:  The privilege of entering into the presence of God through the work of Jesus Christ.
  • 6617 atonement, in NT:  In dying for the sins of the world, Jesus Christ fulfilled and replaced the OT sacrificial system, so that all who believe in him are restored to fellowship with God. Christ is the true high priest, who finally liberates his people from the guilt of sin, by offering himself as the supreme sacrifice.
  • 6636 drawing near to God:  Under the old covenant, coming near to God was closely linked with the sacrificial system, but under the new covenant Jesus Christ’s sacrifice has given believers free access into God’s presence.
  • 6648 expiation:  The removal of the guilt of sin in God’s sight by the offering of a vicarious sacrifice which, in its death, bears the sin of the individual or nation concerned.
  • 6661 freedom, and the law:  Jesus Christ sets his people free from the condemnation and oppression of the law. Through the Holy Spirit, believers are able to fulfil the law obediently according to God’s intentions.
  • 6669 grace, and salvation:  Deliverance through Jesus Christ is the result of accepting God’s undeserved favour.
  • 6682 mediation:  The achieving of fellowship and reconciliation between separated parties. Scripture declares that Jesus Christ is the only true mediator between God and humanity.
  • 6684 mediator:  An intermediary who intervenes between two separated or alienated parties, with the aim of achieving reconciliation and fellowship. Scripture declares that Jesus Christ is the only true mediator between God and humanity.
  • 6750 sin-bearer:  A person or animal that acts in God’s sight in a substitutionary capacity, to whom are transferred the sins of others, together with the corresponding penalty for those sins.
  • 7266 tribes of Israel:  The divisions of Israel on lines of kinship, according to descent from the twelve sons of Jacob. These divisions were most pronounced in the period before Saul became king of Israel but were maintained throughout Israel’s history.
  • 7302 altar:  A construction, usually of wood, stone or metal, for the offering of sacrifice. The conflict between true and false religion often focused on altars, which were of key significance in biblical times.
  • 7328 ceremonies:  Formal outward practices and rituals symbolising or marking events of importance or spiritual significance. Although they had their place in biblical cultural life, they may become empty and hypocritical, losing their deep spiritual meaning. Ceremonies thus become symbolic of empty legalism which should be rejected.
  • 7377 high priest, in OT:  The OT emphasises the spiritual importance of the high priest, especially as the one who makes atonement for the sins of the nation. It also sets out his duties and responsibilities.
  • 7413 priesthood, in OT:  The institution of the priesthood or the particular body of people responsible for priestly duties.
  • 7414 priesthood, in NT:  Jesus Christ recognised the function of the OT priesthood, but the gospel belief in Christ as high priest and the priesthood of all believers superseded the earlier concept.
  • 7424 ritual law:  The rules and regulations regarding the conduct of the priests and people of Israel in approaching God, especially in worship. They were to be holy as God is holy. The perfect sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross is seen by NT writers as fulfilling this demand for holiness and obedience.
  • 7434 sacrifice:  An important aspect of the relationship between God and humanity but whereas the OT describes many sacrifices, the NT announces the fulfilment of sacrifice in Jesus Christ.
  • 7436 sacrifice, NT fulfilment of:  For the people of the new covenant, sacrifice is fulfilled in Jesus Christ. Christians should have nothing to do with other sacrifices but are to bring their own “spiritual” offerings.
  • 7444 sin offering:  Offerings to make atonement for both moral and ritual offences. The NT sees them as foreshadowing the death of Jesus Christ as an offering for human sin.
  • 8105 assurance, basis of:  The assurance of believers is based upon the certain knowledge of God revealed in creation and his mighty acts in history, upon the certainty of his promises, the vindication and resurrection of Christ and the inward testimony and outward demonstration of the power of the Holy Spirit.
  • 8106 assurance, nature of:  The God-given security which believers have in the blessings of divine grace. Believers are assured of the unfailing love of God and of their relationship with him as Father, the salvation and eternal life which he offers and the sure hope of one day sharing his glory.
  • 8201 blamelessness:  A quality of life apparent in an individual against whom no just charge can be made. This is exemplified supremely in the blameless life and death of Jesus Christ. Though believers remain imperfect in this life, they are counted blameless in God’s sight on account of the atoning death of Jesus Christ.
  • 8214 confidence, basis of:  The confidence of believers, is grounded in God’s character, actions and trustworthy promises, rather than human achievements.
  • 8321 perfection, divine:  The state of being whole, complete or without defect in any way.
  • 8322 perfection, human:  Human wholeness in the image of God, given at creation and lost in the fall, is to be fully restored in Jesus Christ.
  • 8326 purity, moral and spiritual:  Moral and spiritual purity is demanded by God of his people. God calls his people to be holy, just as He is holy.
  • 8603 prayer, as a relationship with God:  Prayer is based on God’s love for believers. Through his grace, he gives them things which they do not deserve, while through his mercy he shields them from those things which they do deserve.
  • 8611 prayer, for others:  Believers should pray, not only for their own needs, but for those of others. Scripture provides many examples of intercession, and commends it as pleasing to God.
  • 8625 worship, acceptable attitudes in:  True worship is not the mechanical repetition of rituals, but should be wholehearted and reverent. It should be based upon trustful and obedient lives, in that obedience is itself to be seen as an act of worship.
  • 9121 eternity, nature of:  God alone possesses lasting time, in contrast to the fleeting time of the human race.
  • 9613 hope, as confidence:  Hope means more than a vague wish that something will happen. It is a sure and confident expectation in God’s future faithfulness and presence. The horizon of Christian hope extends beyond death into an eternity prepared by God himself, the reality of which is guaranteed by Jesus Christ.
  • 9615 hope, results of:  Hope gives believers confidence and reassurance in this present life, allowing them to lead effective lives for God. It also reassures them of the reality of eternal life, allowing them to face death with confidence.

For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.




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